Clathrate hydrates were first documented in 1810 by Sir Humphry Davy who found that water was a primary component of what was earlier thought to be solidified chlorine. In the research field of hydrate as a potential energy resource, production technology is closely related to geotechnical engineering. Establishing safe and efficient gas production technology requires extensive information on geotechnical characteristics of a hydrate reservoir.
Gas Hydrates or Clathrate hydrate are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small nonpolar molecules(typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules. In other words, clathrate hydrates are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is typically a gas or liquid. Without the support of the trapped molecules, the lattice structure of hydrate clathrates would collapse into conventional ice crystal structure or liquid water.
The discovery of Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSR) as potential indicators of the gas hydrate occurrences led to active geophysical research for identifying the locations and the amounts of gas hydrates in oceanic and permafrost sediment formations. Natural gas hydrates are mostly found in offshore and permafrost regions.
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